The Ways

Walker on the road
Photo:  Turismo de PortugalAll Rights Reserved

​There is a vast network of pilgrimage roads and paths to the shrine of the apostle St. James which snake and consolidate themselves throughout almost the whole of Europe and have led to a set of globally recognised ‘ways’, such as: the Primitive Way, the French Way, the Via de la Plata, the English Way, the Northern Way, the Route of the Sea of Arousa and River Ulla, the Fisterra-Muxía Way and the Portuguese Way.

The Primitive Way

This is probably the oldest way, connecting Oviedo to Santiago de Compostela via Lugo. Legend has it that it was used by Alfonso II of Asturias during his pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James.

O Caminho Francês

This is the most historically traditional and internationally recognised way. Its origins are difficult to state with certainty. It was referred to as early as the 12th century in the Liber Sancti Jacobi (known as the Codex Calixtinus), which described how pilgrims from all over the Christian lands arrived in Santiago de Compostela via this route. Four routes crossed France: the Paris and Tours Route (Via Turonensis), travelled by pilgrims from northern Europe, Flanders and the northern areas of France, including the city of Paris; the Vézelay Route (Via Lemovicensis), which originates in the city of Vézelay, and was used by German and Flemish pilgrims; the Le Puy Route (Via Podiensis), which entered France at Le Puy; the Arles Way (Via Tolosana), which together with the Via Podiensis, was travelled by pilgrims from Italy and eastern Europe. The three former routes (Via Turonensis, Via Lemovicensis and Via Podiensis) joined at Saint Jean-Pied-de-Port to form a single route which entered the Iberian Peninsula at Roncesvalles. The Via Tolosana crossed into the Iberian Peninsula at Somport and joined the former at Puente de la Reina, Navarra. From there onwards, the French Way entered Galicia, after crossing the mountain of O Cebreiro, and headed towards Santiago de Compostela.

Via de La Plata

This began to be used as a pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela from the 13th century after King Ferdinand II of Castille’s conquest of the cities of Seville and Cordoba. The route followed the old Roman Road (Via Romana) connecting Mérida to Astorga and crossed the western Iberian Peninsula from south to north.

The English Way

This route combined a sea and overland route which was at its height in the 12th century above all. There are essentially two reasons for the regular use of the sea route: fewer attacks by Norman and Moorish pirates meant that it was safer to sail in the Atlantic, and the periods of military confrontation in Europe which made the routes travelled by pilgrims dangerous, hence the adoption of an alternative sea route. This route was especially common with pilgrims from England and Ireland, whose destination were the ports at the Gulf of Ártabro (Ferrol, Betanzos-Ares and Burgo rivers). From these ports, the rest of the journey was travelled by land south to Compostela.

The Northern Way

Like the English Way, this route consists of a dual sea and overland component. In the case of the former, it uses the commercial sea routes from the Atlantic European ports to the Cantabrian ports. In the latter case, it follows the Northern Way which runs from Bayonne and Irun along the Cantabrian coastline to Galicia, arriving in the province at Ribadeo. The route splits in the parish of San Xoán de Ove, rejoining at the city of Mondoñedo and following on from there to Compostela (3).
Route of the Sea of Arousa and River Ulla

A sea-river route associated with the traslatio – the arrival of the apostle’s body in Galicia. According to legend, on his return to Judea after preaching the gospel in the Iberian Peninsula, St. James was condemned to death by Herod Agrippa I. In 44 AD, after his beheading, the apostle’s disciples (Theodore and Athanasius) gathered up his body and sailed down the Mediterranean to the city of Iria Flavia, where the Galician coastal city of Padrón currently stands. They then carried his remains from Santiago to Libredón, where he was buried. (4)

The Fiterra-Muxia Way

This is considered an extension of the Jacobean routes, a sort of “thaumaturgical continuation of the pilgrimage routes to the Galician finis terrae”.(5)   The route begins in Santiago de Compostela and ends at Cape Finisterre in the province of La Coruña, the westernmost point of Europe.

The disciples of St. James arrived here in the hope of obtaining permission to bury the apostle’s body in Compostela. They were imprisoned and in the ensuing escape, followed by Roman soldiers, crossed a bridge which collapsed under their pursuers. The saint’s disciples were saved. This is mentioned in the Codex Calixtinus (mid-12th century) and therefore associates Muxia and Fisterra to the Jacobean tradition, which encouraged and incentivised the worship of the Virxe da Barca at the former and, at Fisterra, the Holly Christ (Santo Cristo), one of the most popular devotions in Galicia.(6)

The Portuguese Way

The various routes in Portugal comprised a network of roads and trails concentrated, above all, in the north of the country, as can be seen in the itinerary of the so-called Caminho Central or Caminho Principal (Central Way or Main Way), which entered Galicia in Tui and passed through Porriño, Redondela, Pontesampaio, Pontevedra, Caldas de Reis, Valga and Pontecesures, following on to Padrón and Santiago de Compostela. What was called the Caminho da Costa (Coastal Way), a mixed sea and overland way consisting of three routes, also converged on this region. One of the routes reached Galicia via A Guarda, passing through the Monastery of Oia, Baiona, Coruxo and Santo André de Comesaña. At this point, the route forked in two directions – one which ran through Coia and Condomiñas and another which went through Santa Maria de Castrelos and Santo Tomé de Freixeiro, after which they both headed towards Vigo and then on to Redondela, where the route joined the Central or Main Way. The third route crossed the River Minho and followed on to São Pedro da Torre, the point where pilgrims from Caminha, Arcos de Valdevez and Ponte de Lima concentrated. (7)

Bearing in mind that the north of Portugal was the point where the various routes converged, mention must be made of the Caminho por Braga (Portuguese Way via Braga), which was a much travelled route in Portugal up until the early 14th century, when the bridge in Barcelos was finished and the bridge in Ponte de Lima was rebuilt, which then made it preferable to take the alternative way via the Porto-Valença royal road (Central Way), because it was straighter. The route via Braga started from the Via XVI, a Roman road which departed from Lisbon and went through Santarém, Coimbra and Porto and followed on to Braga, where it continued towards Ponte de Lima and joined the Central or Main Way.

Pilgrimages to Compostela. Portuguese routes

​“Alta rraynha senhor Santiago por nos ora.
Partimos de Portugal catar cura a nosso mal”(8)

(Garcia de Resende – Cancioneiro Geral. 1516)

The pilgrimage centre of Santiago de Compostela, located at Europe’s westernmost point, at the far end of the Iberian Peninsula, and geographically opposite Christianity’s two most important points of pilgrimage – Jerusalem and Rome – rapidly became a focal point for those who, in the name of faith, travelled throughout Europe, in search of comfort, solace and answers to their problems, which only a holy place could provide. The increase in pilgrim traffic to Santiago de Compostela from the 9th century onwards can also be explained in terms of the increasing difficulties in reaching the holy places in Palestine, due to the continued religious and military conflicts that had made the pilgrimage to the Holy Land, the supreme destination, a dangerous one. Hence the consolidation of the Jacobean cult.

The closeness of Portugal, and in particular of its northern regions, to Galicia placed the country at the crossroads of this holy place and the Portuguese Way is defined by a dense mesh of routes, established in response to the geographical location of the pilgrims, which converge as they approach Galicia. In general terms, the main arteries of the medieval Portuguese road network were based on the Roman roads that came before, with the major Mérida-Braga road, which passed through Alentejo, Lisbon, Santarém, Conímbriga, Porto and Braga, being a large artery with branches off to Astorga, via Chaves, Lugo, via Geira, and to Valença and Tui, following on to the vicinity of Pontevedra and curving round towards Ourense and Lugo. (9)

After recognition of Portuguese nationhood in the 12th century, the Jacobean pilgrimages grew in popularity. The overland routes were supplemented by sea routes directly related to the Atlantic commercial routes, linking the Portuguese ports to those of northern Europe, which were normally safer and quicker than the overland routes and were used above all by foreigners. Lisbon, Aveiro, Porto, Vila do Conde and Viana do Castelo were obligatory ports of call on the commercial cabotage routes. (10)

The overland routes followed by the pilgrims were the ancient Roman roads which cut through Portuguese territory. The Portuguese Way via Braga mostly followed the Via XVI and went via Lisbon, Santarém, Coimbra, Porto and Braga. The Central or Main Way followed the Via XIX, which passed Braga, Ponte de Lima, Tui, Pontevedra and Lugo along the way.

These ways were supplemented by a dense and tight web of roads and small trails which connected more minor and more major settlements with important infrastructure.

What essentially defines the Jacobean routes in Portugal are the parishes dedicated to St. James and located along the pilgrimage routes, and the chapels built in honour of the apostle, or dedicated to S. Gonçalo of Amarante and S. Roque, who were associated with St. James.(11)

In the particular case of the veneration and cult of St. James, the oldest known reference in Portugal is the church of Castelo do Neiva, in Viana do Castelo, which was dedicated to St. James in 862. (12) At the end of the 10th century, as mentioned in the Braga Censual, the number of parishes between the rivers Lima and Ave, whose patron saint was St. James, stood at over twenty. In the whole Diocese of Porto, there were 28 parishes whose patron saint was St. James (13) between the 16th and 19th centuries.

These routes are also identified by medieval bridges - crucial structures in the road network of the Middle Ages, fountains, crosses, images of the Apostle (in his triple representation as apostle, pilgrim and knight (matamouros - moor-slayer), pilgrim hostels, monasteries associated with the Jacobean pilgrimage, heraldry, place names, devotional brotherhoods, feasts and legends. (14) But special mention goes also to references to ferries, for river crossings, leper hospitals, hospices and charitable institutions (Misericórdias). Structures, in other words, along the pilgrimage routes associated with the shrine of the apostle St. James and which constituted a complex network of assistance and resting places intended, out of the love of God, to welcome and protect pilgrims and the devoted on their travels.

In Porto, taking the cathedral as a reference point, mention should be made of the altar to St. James, designed by Father Manuel Pereira Novais and referred to in a description of the interior from the late 17th century. The altar would have been sited beside the column separating the central nave from the side nave on the Gospel side, but after the modifications made to the interior of the cathedral during the Sede Vacante period (1717-1741), it was moved to the main nave on the Gospel side. (15) The existence of this altar, which was built on unknown date, confirms that the Jacobean cult was a regular feature of a place which had become a departure and arrival point for pilgrimages to Santiago. This 18th century image is currently held in the Chapterhouse of the “Casa do Cabido”.

In 1307, the Palmeiros Hospital was built in the same city, run by one of the oldest guilds (dating from the 13th century) – the Brotherhood of Shoemakers, dedicated to S. Crispim and S. Crispiano. The records show that it was the earliest building specifically intended to provide assistance to pilgrims travelling to Santiago de Compostela – “pobres Romeyros que vão, e vem para o Senhor San Tiago, e se em elle colhem, e podem colher ao diante”(16). Until expropriated in 1755 and demolished in 1876, this hospital was located north of Rua Nova de S. João, in front of Rua das Cangostas de Baixo and Rua da Ponte de S. Domingos, beside the Convent of São Domingos, in what was then called the Estate of Ponte de S. Domingos. The church of the guild was built to the back of the hospital, and moved in 1876 to a site in Rua de St. Jerónimo, now Praça Rainha Dona Amélia. These expropriations are directly related to the opening of Rua Mouzinho da Silveira. (17)

Shelter and assistance for the local community, travellers and pilgrims was provided by the city’s monasteries and convents. The oldest of these are the convent of S. Francisco, founded in 1233, and that of S. Domingos, from 1239. The Porto Misericórdia established in 1499, centralised hospice care, as occurred throughout the kingdom wherever a Misericórdia was founded. In this case, and similarly to what was observed in the Misericórdias in the cities and towns along the coast, they were obliged to provide pilgrims and romeiros with assistance. By order of King Manuel I, the Santa Clara (Cimo da Vila), Rocamador and, later, Santo Cristo and S. João Baptista hospitals were put under the management of the Misericórdia in Porto. The Hospital dos Palmeiros was not included. (18)

As remarked, S. Roque was one of the patron saints of the Jacobean cult. In Porto, a hermitage dedicated to S. Roque was built in 1659, in front of the entrance to the cathedral, and was later demolished in 1756. A new chapel of S. Roque was built in 1767-1773, located in the leather working area, which was redesigned in the same period and given a new square – Praça de Santa Ana. Both chapel and square were demolished in 1877. (19)

The major religious, political, economic and social cycles marked the different stages in the vitality and decadence of the Jacobean pilgrimages. A period of popularity followed, in the 15th century, with a time of pronounced decline in devotional visitors to the shrine of the apostle. A series of factors were responsible for this backwards step, amongst which must be mentioned the major economic and demographic crisis in Europe in the 14th century, the Black Plague, responsible for wiping out one third of Europe’s population, and also the religious crisis of the 16th century, which led to the Reformation and Counter-Reformation and pitted Catholics against Protestants. A new regenerative period emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Nevertheless, examining the situation in Porto, the cult of the Apostle, for whom there was a dedicated altar in the cathedral, seemed to wane in importance and significance. A description of the cathedral’s interior from the late 18th century mentions that the images of Senhor d’Além, “a esta imagem recorre o povo nas ocasiões de maiores calamidades”(20), of Senhora da Silva, very popular and indirectly associated with the Jacobean devotio, are of great devotion, since it is at this altar, dedicated to the Souls, that mass was held before burials, a generalised belief “para que Nossa Senhora retirasse as silvas do caminho, no trajeto da alma para Santiago”(21) (so that Our Lady would clear the soul’s path to Santiago). (21) Alongside these images, the relics of the martyrs S. Pacífico and St.º Aurélio, in the main chapel, were also highly venerated. However, in the description of the Porto parishes recounted in the Memórias Paroquiais from 1758, no mention is made of any parish whose patron saint was St. James or which had a noticeable Jacobean devotion.

All of this leads to the conclusion that the Jacobean cult was waning, a situation exacerbated by the advent of new devotions stimulated by the counter-reformist policy of the Council of Trent, which also encouraged the appearance of new places of worship. On this, it should be stressed that, in around 1722, in the parish of Tenões, Braga, the the Holly Mount of Bom Jesus was revived as a place of pilgrimage, major hub of devotion and, therefore, catalyst for pilgrimages which until then had focused on Compostela. Bom Jesus do Monte became the country’s largest Christological sanctuary. Despite the appeal of the sanctuary of Bom Jesus, in Braga, however, of note is the fact that Compostela continued to attract pilgrims. Records exist in Braga itself related to the assistance afforded by the Misericórdia and the Ordem Terceira Franciscana to travellers and pilgrims on their way to Santiago. (22)

Other stages in the decline in the Jacobean cult are identified in the troubled 19th century, in particular the great economic recession which affected all of Europe. The two world wars (1914-1918 and 1939-1945) further emphasised the wane in Jacobean pilgrimages for obvious reasons.

The revival of these pilgrimages started in the 1960s and led to the Council of Europe declaring the Way of St. James a “Historical and Artistic Whole”, in 1962. Due to the noticeable and consistent upsurge in pilgrims in the 1980s, it was declared the first European Cultural Route by the Council of Europe. In 1993, UNESCO named it a World Heritage Site.

In the current millennium, the number of people making the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela has grown exponentially, with believers and non-believers alike undertaking the journey for manifold reasons.

R sta isabel _1.jpg

Photo: Paula Cardona                                                                                                                                     All Rights Reserved

The “Royal” Way of princes, kings and queens and other high dignitaries of the nobility and clergy

The Portuguese Way has been travelled by the common man and also by high dignitaries of the Portuguese and foreign clergy and nobility. In the records on both sides of the border in Valença are mentioned the journeys of these important pilgrims.

D. Sancha, wife of King Ferdinand I, the Great, visited the shrine of the Apostle (1063) three times during the conquest of Coimbra. D. Pedro, the first Bishop of Braga, also travelled to Compostela to attend the Council (1075). D. Hugo, then Bishop of Porto, returned to Compostela where he had been Archdeacon. (23)
There are signs that the first Portuguese kings of the House of Borgonha made the pilgrimage: the counts of Portucale, Henry of Borgonha (Count Henry) and D. Teresa visited the shrine of the Apostle in 1097; followed by Afonso II (1220) and Sancho II (1244). Elizabeth of Aragon (Saint Elizabeth of Portugal) did it twice, in 1325 and 1335, and King Manuel I, ‘the Fortunate’, made a pilgrimage in 1502. (24)

Amongst other notable figures is Nuno Álvares Pereira, who, in 1385, tried to complete the Coastal route which departed from Porto and went via Vila do Conde and Póvoa do Varzim to Viana do Castelo. The attempt was unsuccessful. (25) A century later, D. Filipa, an aunt of Princess Santa Joana, travelled to Santiago de Compostela in a jubilee year. (26)

The Flemish painter Van Eyck, after arriving by boat in Lisbon, walked to Santiago de Compostela in 1428. (27)The Apostolic Nuncio Monsignor Fabio Biondo Monalto, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and his secretary, Giovanni Battista Contonelli, described the journey from Lisbon to Santiago and back. Baron Leo of Rosmithal, a Bohemian nobleman on pilgrimage in 1466, met King Afonso V in Braga and continued via Prado, Ponte de Lima, Valença and entered Galicia at Tui. The Polish nobleman Nicolau Polielovo travelled by boat from Lisbon to Santiago in 1484. On his return, he took the Central Way through Valença, Ponte de Lima, Rates and Porto to Lisbon. The doctor and humanist Hieronymus Münzer, from Nuremberg travelled from Lisbon to Santiago in 1495 by way of the Portuguese Central Way, which runs through Porto, Rates, Barcelos, Ponte de Lima and Valença.

The Abbot of Claraval, Edeme Daulieu, with his secretary, Friar Claudius de Bronseval, on a visit to the Cistercian monasteries in the Iberian Peninsula, travelled the routes between 1531 and 1533, and left a very detailed account, particularly as regards infrastructures and accommodation; Sigismundi Cavalli, an Italian, travelled in 1568 from Porto to Santiago, via Braga, Prado, Ponte de Lima, Valença and Tui; the Nuncio Fabio Biondo Monalto made a pilgrimage in 1594 with his secretary, Giovanni Battista Contonelli, to Santiago, via Lisbon, stopping at São Pedro de Rates. He chose the same route back, leaving a full account of the places he passed. (28)

The prince heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Cosimo de Medici, travelled to Santiago in 1669 by way of Portugal. The account of his pilgrimage was published under the title Relazione del viaggo del Portogallo e Galiza, with illustrations by the painter Pier Maria Baldi, who accompanied him.

The built heritage associated with the Portuguese routes – bridges, paved roads, inns, hospitals, churches, chapels, convents – which started to be consolidated during the medieval period, was largely due to the devotional patronage of the civil and ecclesiastical aristocracy. At the forefront was the crown, interested in encouraging pilgrimages to Santiago, followed by other members of the nobility who saw it as a means to redeem their souls and ensure eternal salvation.

Jacobean devotion which manifested itself in various artistic forms, including literature, also inspired troubadour poetry, a genre which earned popularity in the Middle-Ages in the Iberian Peninsula and was known as the Galician-Portuguese lyric.

The troubadour Airas Nunes, who is assumed to be of Galician origin and was active in the 13th century, said of Santiago:

Em Santiago, seend'albergado
em mia pousada, chegarom romeus.
Preguntei-os e disserom: - Par Deus,
muito levade'lo caminh'errado!
Ca, se verdade quiserdes achar,
outro caminho convém a buscar,
ca nom sabem aqui dela mandado(29).

 

 
 
NOTAS:
(3) GONZÁLEZ-PAZ, Carlos Andrés, 2009 – “La Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén y las peregrinaciones en la Galicia medieval (siglos XII-XIII)”, in População e Sociedade, n.º 17. Porto: CEPESE, p. 10-12
(4) GONZÁLEZ-PAZ, Carlos Andrés, Ob., cit., p. 12-13
(5) GONZÁLEZ-PAZ, Carlos Andrés, Ob., cit., p. 13
(6) Idem, ibidem
Available at: <http://camino.xacobeo.es/pt-pt/caminhos/caminho-de-fisterra-muxia> [ref.: 13 February 2014]
(7) GONZÁLEZ-PAZ, Carlos Andrés, ob. cit., p. 12
(8) MARQUES, José, 1992 - O Culto de S. Tiago no Norte de Portugal. Offprint of Revista Lusitana Sacra, 2nd Series, n.º 4. Braga, p. 121
(9) MARQUES, José, 1997 – “Viajar em Portugal nos Séculos XV e XVI”, in Revista da Faculdade de Letras da U.P., História, Vol. XIV. Porto: FLUP, p. 95
(10) MARQUES, José, 1997 – “Viajar em Portugal nos Séculos XV e XVI”, Ob., cit., p. 99
(11) MAGALHÃES, Arlindo de, 1995 – “A Compostela, por caminhos e caminhos…”, in Caminhos Portugueses a Santiago. Itinerários Portugueses. Galiza: Xunta da Galiza e Centro de Artes Tradicionais, p. 329-330. S. Gonçalo went on pilgrimages to Rome and Jerusalem. Familiar to the difficulties of pilgrims, and according to tradition, he decided to build, as an act of mercy, the Amarante Bridge. Bridges were essential infrastructures in the Middle Ages and their existence somehow determined the Ways of Saint James, strengthen through the places were those bridges would allow pilgrims to safely cross the rivers. For this reason S. Gonçalo becomes the protector of the Ways. Another devotion that is raised also along the Ways is that of S. Roque, also a pilgrim and protector of those caught by the plague.
(12) MARQUES, José, 1992 - O Culto de S. Tiago no Norte de Portugal, Ob., cit., p. 102
(13) MARQUES, José, 1995 – “O Culto de S. Tiago em Portugal e no antigo Ultramar Português”, …”, in Caminhos Portugueses a Santiago. Itinerários Portugueses. Galiza: Xunta da Galiza e Centro de Artes Tradicionais, p. 288-295
(14) MAGALHÃES, Arlindo de, 1995 – “A Compostela, por caminhos e caminhos…”, Ob., cit., p. 329-330
(15) FERREIRA-ALVES, Natália Marinho, 1989 – A arte da talha no Porto na época moderna. Artistas e clientela. Materiais e técnica. Porto: Arquivo Histórico / Câmara Municipal do Porto, vol.I, p. 47-49
(16) DIAS, Geraldo José Amadeu Coelho, 2006 - A Irmandade de S. Crispim e S. Crispiniano: uma relíquia da Idade Média no Porto moderno, in Estudos em homenagem ao Professor Doutor José Marques. Porto: FLUP, vol. 2, p. 157
(17) DIAS, Geraldo José Amadeu Coelho, 2006 - A Irmandade de S. Crispim e S. Crispiniano, Ob., cit., p. 147-160. About this matter also refer to: OLIVEIRA, Maria Helena da Rocha, 2001 - A Confraria de S. Crispim e S. Crispiniano e o seu Hospital na Idade Média. Porto: FLUP [Master Thesis]
(18) OLIVEIRA, Maria Helena da Rocha, 2001 - A Confraria de S. Crispim e S. Crispiniano e o seu Hospital na Idade Média. Porto: FLUP [Tese de Mestrado], p. 66 refer also to: DIAS, Geraldo José Amadeu Coelho, - A Irmandade de S. Crispim e S. Crispiniano, Ob., cit., p. 158
(19) FERREIRA-ALVES, Joaquim Jaime B, 1988. – O Porto na Época dos Almadas. Arquitectura. Obras Públicas. Porto: Câmara Municipal do Porto,Vol. I, p. 223-226.
(20) COSTA, Agostinho Rebelo da, 1788 – Descrição Topográfica da Cidade do Porto. 2ª ed. A. Magalhães Basto, p. 92
(21) ALMEIDA, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de, 1995 – “Caminhos Medievais no Norte de Portugal”, Itinerários Portugueses. Galiza: Xunta da Galiza e Centro de Artes Tradicionais, p. 3355
(22) Refer to the study by MORAES, Juliana de Mello, 2010 – “Peregrinos e Viajantes no Norte de Portugal. As esmolas distribuídas pela Ordem Terceira Franciscana de Braga aos irmãos «Passageiros» (1720-1816)”, in Cem Cultura, Espaço & Memória: Revista do CITCEM n.º 1. Porto: Universidade do Porto, p. 263-264
(23) MARQUES, José, 1992, Ob., cit., p. 115-116
(24) MARQUES, José, 1992, Ob., cit., p. 103-105; p. 117-118
(25) MARQUES, José, 1992, Ob., cit., p.115
(26) MARQUES, José, 1992, Ob., cit., p.118
(27) MAGALHÃES, Arlindo de, 1995 – “A Compostela, por caminhos e caminhos…”, Ob. cit., p. 337
(28) MARQUES, José, 1997 – “Viajar em Portugal nos Séculos XV e XVI”, Ob. cit., p. 102; 110-112
(29) This probably Galician troubadour and clergyman was active at the end of the 13th century. TAVANI, Giuseppe, 1992, A poesía de Airas Nunez, Vigo, Editorial Galaxia. In Cantigas Medievais Galego-Portuguesas. Cantigas Medievais Galego-Portuguesas. Available at: < http://cantigas.fcsh.unl.pt/autor.asp?pv=sim&cdaut=16> [consult: 13 February 2014]  

Published 10-04-2014
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